Gut Check

Month: January 2019

Gut Microbiota in Patients With Irritable Bowel Syndrome—A Systematic Review

Altering the gut microbiota has been proposed as a strategy for the treatment of IBS, but the association between the gut microbiome and IBS symptoms has not been well established. Most studies evaluated adults presenting with various IBS subtypes. Family Enterobacteriaceae (phylum Proteobacteria), family Lactobacillaceae, and genus Bacteroides were increased in patients with IBS compared with controls, whereas uncultured Clostridiales I, genus Faecalibacterium (including Faecalibacterium prausnitzii), and genus Bifidobacterium were decreased in patients with IBS. The diversity of the microbiota was either decreased or not different in IBS patients compared with controls.

Brain-gut-microbiota axis in Alzheimer’s disease

Alterations in the gut microbiota composition induce increased permeability of the gut barrier and immune activation leading to systemic inflammation, which in turn may impair the blood-brain barrier and promote neuroinflammation, neural injury, and ultimately neurodegeneration. The Aβ seeding and propagation may occur at different levels of the brain-gut-microbiota axis. The potential mechanisms of amyloid spreading include neuron-to-neuron or distal neuron spreading, direct blood-brain barrier crossing or via other cells as astrocytes, fibroblasts, microglia, and immune system cells. A growing body of experimental and clinical data confirms a key role of gut dysbiosis and gut microbiota-host interactions in neurodegeneration.