Gut Check

Month: September 2020

Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) and the Gut Microbiome: An Interview with Professor Michael Kamm, Our Scientific Advisor

Share on facebook Facebook Share on google Google+ Share on twitter Twitter Share on linkedin LinkedIn It has become increasingly clear that the microbiome plays an important role in influencing human health conditions, not least gastro-intestinal conditions like Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) and Ulcerative Colitis. We spoke with our AMILI advisor, Dr Michael Kamm, Professor …

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All Wisdom Begins in the Gut

The millions and millions of bacteria that have made themselves comfortable on, around, and inside of us greatly outnumber our own human cells. One could say that it’s a bacterial world and we merely live in it. In recent years, there has been an active spotlight on these trillions of little bugs that live in and on us. Some scientists have even gone on to proclaim this collection of bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and fungi, also called the microbiome – as the forgotten organ of our bodies! Hippocrates may have known something more than us when he said “All disease begins in the gut”.

Smoking and the Gut Microbiome

Share on facebook Facebook Share on google Google+ Share on twitter Twitter Share on linkedin LinkedIn Did you know that smoking, in addition to damaging lungs and the cardiovascular system, also harms the gut microbiome? The microbiome, the complex ecosystem of microbes living in your gut and influencing many disease states including diabetes, dementia and …

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The link between oral and gut microbiota in inflammatory bowel disease and a synopsis of potential salivary biomarkers

The objective of this review is to provide recent evidence for the oral–gut axis connection and to discuss gastrointestinal (GI) immune response, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) pathogenesis, and potential salivary biomarkers for determining GI health. IBD affects an estimated 1.3% of the US adult population. While genetic predisposition and environment play a role, abnormal immune activity and microbiota dysbiosis within the gastrointestinal tract are also linked in IBD pathogenesis. It has been inferred that a reduced overall richness of bacterial species as well as colonization of opportunistic bacteria induce systemic inflammation in the GI tract. Currently, there is supporting evidence that both oral and gut microbiota may be related to the development of IBD. Despite this, there are currently no curative therapies for IBD, and diagnosis requires samples of blood, stool, and invasive diagnostic imaging techniques. Considering the relative ease of collection, emerging evidence of association with non-oral diseases may imply that saliva microbiome research may have the potential for gut diagnostic or prognostic value. This review demonstrates a link between saliva and intestinal profiles in IBD patients, suggesting that saliva sampling has the potential to serve as a non-invasive biomarker for gut diseases such as IBD in the oral–gut axis.

Parkinson’s disease-associated alterations of the gut microbiome predict disease-relevant changes in metabolic functions

Our key results include the following. Eight genera and seven species changed significantly in their relative abundances between PD patients and healthy controls. PD-associated microbial patterns statistically depended on sex, age, BMI, and constipation. Particularly, the relative abundances of Bilophila and Paraprevotella were significantly associated with the Hoehn and Yahr staging after controlling for the disease duration. Furthermore, personalised metabolic modelling of the gut microbiomes revealed PD-associated metabolic patterns in the predicted secretion potential of nine microbial metabolites in PD, including increased methionine and cysteinylglycine.